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GOETHALS, Lucien

Lucien GOETHALS was born on 26 June 1931 in Ghent. His spent his most important formative years in Argentina, where he studied at the Dima Conservatory of Buenos Aires (1933-1946). When he returned to Belgium, he continued his studies at the Royal Conservatory in Ghent until 1956. Here he earned his first prize in organ, music history, counterpoint and fugue. Despite the conservative climate of the Flemish musical landscape, Goethals’ musical interest turned increasingly to the new international developments (serialism, electronic music, aleatory music). This interest was further stimulated by Norbert Rosseau, who introduced him to dodecaphonic techniques, although Goethals was largely self-taught in his evolution towards and thinking through of total serialism. As a composer and a producer for the Belgian radio, he was, like Louis de Meester, associated with the Institute for Psycho-Acoustic and Electronic Music (IPEM) in Ghent, from its founding in 1963. This offered him the opportunity to experiment with tape and electronic sound generators. He continued to work there until 1987. His many years of commitment to the IPEM explains the large share of electro-acoustic compositions in his oeuvre. Together with other young composers and musicologists, he was part of the SPECTRA work group (1963-1967).
Goethals’ intensive involvement with the musical avant-garde of the 1960s was also evident in his participation in courses in Darmstadt and Bilthoven. Besides studies with Gottfried Michael Koenig, he furthered his studies in Utrecht (Instituut voor Sonologie) as well as in the use of the computer as a compositional medium. From 1971 he taught music analysis at the conservatory in Ghent. His students have included such composers as Filip Rathé, Petra Vermote and Frank Nuyts. In 1996 the Lucien Goethals Society was founded. This society concentrates both on the dissemination of the music of Goethals and his generation, and on the promotion of contemporary music in general. Goethals has already been awarded numerous prizes, most recently the ANV-Visser Neerlandiaprijs (1999). Lucien Goethals died in Ghent on 12 December 2006.

WORK REVIEW
Goethals’ musical oeuvre from his student period was largely marked by eclecticism, along the lines of Neo-Classicism. Soon after, he began to distance himself from the official aesthetic, initially by adopting dodecaphony (Musica Dodecafonica for piano (1957)), and subsequently through the serialisation of other musical parameters and the introduction of aleatory mobility (Twee Kristallen for piano (1961)). Goethals thus belongs to the second generation of serialists, who brought into more general use the achievements of the 1950s. In his work, for instance, the serial principal is not only applied to the twelve-tone division of the octave, but also to nineteen- (Contrapuntos, Vensters) and twenty-four-tone divisions (Studie VI, Zeven Haikoes).
The same is true of complex sound phenomena such as electronic spectra and instrumental clusters. In this case the twelve-tone differentiation is often accompanied by a series that organises the density of the spectra and the clusters.
This broadening of the serial technique goes hand in hand with a more flexible approach to it. On the level of pitch and rhythm, this expresses itself in ostinato repetitions of segments of series, and on the level of phrasing and dynamics by building towards a climax (procedures normally considered at odds with the serialist ideal of creating music that is as varied as possible). Moreover, Goethals does not let the series matrix simply run its course like a wind-up toy, but intervenes regularly during the process. The automatic sequence of events is often interrupted. The role of the composer is thus not limited to the pre-compositional stage. Despite these characteristics, Goethals remained true to the purely chromatic treatment of the series, in contrast to developments made by others in the late 1950s and early 1960s.
Lucien Goethals’ first electronic compositions (Studie I-III) were to a large extent influenced by concrete music. Studie V represents a new attitude to the material: empiricism makes way for a serial-statistic ordering. The collaboration with Landrieu, an engineer, resulted in Studie VIIb. The programmer designed by the engineer applied a random function to the series, resulting in ever-changing combinations.
Besides the purely electronic studies, Goethals also took on the confrontation between electro-acoustic and instrumental approaches. With Diàlogos (1963), he was one of the first composers to accord to this issue a central role. The integration of the two media (orchestra and tape) was at this stage still carried out in an alternating-antiphonal way. Starting with his Endomorfie I for piano, violin and tape (1964), the various sources of sound were mixed with one another from start to finish. The quest for a homogeneous sound-world reached its highpoint with Cellotape for cello, piano and tape (1965); this was achieved both through the instrumental handling of the tape and through the electronic amplification of the cello through a contact microphone. The problem of musical coherence and integration of the material is more acute in Contrapuntos for twelve tapes (1966). An equal number of speakers are distributed evenly over a given space. As visitors move through this space, photo-electric beams are interrupted. This interruption in turn activates a corresponding tape recording. The density of the composition is directly proportional to the number of visitors and the speed with which they move. Despite this, a large degree of musical unity is assured by the basic material on the various tapes. The introduction of the mobile form in electronic music is without a doubt one of Goethals’ most important contributions to music history. The title of the work also reveals another central characteristic of his music: the importance of the linear. Counterpoint is also the chief means for linking instrumental and electro-acoustic sources of sound (Sinfonia en gris Mayor (1966)). In a number of multimedia projects the idea of the “sonore continuum” is opened up to the visual sphere; these include Vensters (Windows) (1969) and Hé!…(1971, realised in collaboration with Karel Goeyvaerts and Herman Sabbe). The visual aspect is also prominent in Llanto por Salvador Allende (1973) for solo acting trombonist, a work that, moreover, reveals the social engagement of this composer.
The 1970s saw a new direction in Goethals’ work. The extrovert disappears in favour of a more interiorised tonal language (Musica con cantus firmus triste (1978); Pampa (1979); Paisajes Interiores (1983)). Reminiscences of the tonal world are here no longer studiously avoided. In the third movement of Tres Paisajes Sonoros (1973), the serial progression is continually interrupted by tonal cadential formulas. 
Diferencias for 10 instruments (1975) even consists almost completely of quotations from various styles. And yet Goethals cannot be labelled a postmodernist. For him, musical reality cannot be conceived as a reservoir from which any number of elements can be drawn in order to satisfy one’s own needs. It is rather a necessity, a factor which cannot be ignored. A musical quotation has thus for Goethals no intrinsic symbolic value, only a material value. In this sense he remains an heir to generalized serialism. Tonality and atonality are placed in a dialectic relationship. At present Lucien Goethals is continuing along this path in the nineties (Concerto for bass clarinet and orchestra (1985); Concierto de la Luz y las Tinieblas (1990); Azulejos (1991); Second String Quartet (1992)).

LIST OF WORKS
- Orchestra: Concerto voor orkest (1972); Quatre pièces pour orchestre (1976); Concierto de la Luz y las Tinieblas (1990)
- Electronic: Studie I-VIIb (1962-73); Contrapuntos (1966); Meliorbis (1973); Polyfonium (1975); Polyfonium II/80 (1980); Selva (1986); Synthèse '92 (1991); Ensimismamientos espaciales (2004)
- Mixed: Diàlogos (1963); Endomorfie I (1964); Cellotape (1965); Endomorfie II (1965); Sinfonia en Gris Mayor (1966); Zeven Haikoes (1968); Ensimismamientos (1969); Suma (1971); Difonium (1974); De Tuin der Lusten (1977); Tres Momentos Musicales (1980); Espacios y tiempos for violin, harp and electronics (2003)
- Chamber music: Mouvement (Eerste Strijkkwartet) (1967); Tres Pasajes Sonoros (1973); Diferencias (1975); Pampa (1979); Azulejos (1991); Tweede Strijkkwartet (1992)
- Piano music: Musica Dodecafonica (1959); Twee Kristallen (1961)
- Lieder: Lecina (1966); Twee Liederen (1989); Tres Cantos (1991); Cuatro Poemas de F. García Lorca (1998)
- Multimedia: Vensters (1967); Hé!...(1971)
- Film music: Sirene (1968); To speak or not to speak (1970)

BIBLIOGRAPHY
- Belgisch Tijdschrift voor Muziekwetenschap/ Revue Belge de Musicologie, nr. 54, 2000 (speciaal nummer)
- J. DIERICKX, Ik ben ik en mijn omstandigheid. Lucien Goethals over (zijn) ruimtes en tijden, in Contra., jg. 3, nr. 3, 2004, p. 43-45.
- F. GEYSEN, art. Het orgeloeuvre van Lucien Goethals, in Orgelkunst, 9/2, 1986, p. 29-37
- Y. KNOCKAERT, art. Lucien Goethals. Een andere componist, in Ons Erfdeel, 36/5, 1993, p. 693-697
- De komponist Lucien Goethals, Yang, 56, 1974
- H. SABBE, Le constructivisme bifonctionnel. Essai d'analyse compositionelle d'une oeuvre musicale contemporaine, in Jaarboek IPEM, 2, 1967, Gent, 1968
- H. SABBE, Het muzikale serialisme als techniek en als denkmethode, Gent, 1977, p. 309-387
- H. SABBE, Ontwikkelingen uit het serialisme: Goethals, Laporte, Coppens, in Nieuwe Muziek in Vlaanderen, uitg. dr M. DELAERE, Y. KNOCKAERT en H. SABBE, Brugge, 1998, p.57-69
- SABBE, Inleiding en analytische commentaar bij de partituuruitgave van Twee Kristallen, in Documentae Musicae Novae, I, Gent, 1968
- H. SABBE, Inleiding en analytische commentaar bij de partituuruitgave van Cellotape en Endomorfie I, in Documentae Musicae Novae, II, Gent, 1970
- H. SABBE, Inleiding en analytische commentaar bij de partituuruitgave van Contrapuntos, in Documentae Musicae Novae, IV, Gent, 1974
- H. SABBE, Goethals Lucien: Mouvement (1967) in Contemporary Music in Flanders I: Flemish String quartets since 1950, uitg. dr. M. DELAERE en J. COMPEERS, Leuven, 2004, p. 40-41

DISCOGRAPHY
- Cellotape, CULTURA LP/5066-5, 1966
- Studie I, Studie VIIb, Meliorbis, ALPHA LP/SP 6015, 1973
- Difonium, Studie V, ALPHA LP/SP 6028, 1975
- Lecina, Kultuurraad voor Vlaanderen, BRT LP/LMV 30.007, 1975
- Contrapuntos, Studie II, Studie III, ALPHA LP/DBM-N 257, 1978
- Pampa, VOX TEMPORIS CD/VTP CD 92026, 1995
- Studie I-III, V,VI, Diàlogos, Cadenza uit Diàlogos, Endomorfie I, Endomorfie II, Cellotape, Sinfonia en Gris Mayor, Contrapuntos, Vensters, Formosis, Zeven Haikoes, Ensimismamientos, IDEAMA CD, 1997
- Música con Cantus Firmus Triste, RADIO 3 CD/R3 98007, 1998
- Complete Vocal works, door Spectra Ensemble o.l.v. Filip Rathé, Gent: Vox Temporis (CD) (2002)
 

[© 2001 Bart Put, voor MATRIX ; © 2005 Rebecca Diependaele, voor MATRIX (update)]

works

  • 7 Soliloquios, 1970
    violin 00:20:00
  • Azulejos, 1991
    4 guitars 00:15:45
  • Beweging, 1981
    clarinet quartet 00:10:00
  • Cáscaras, 1969
    Mezzo-Soprano, flute, clarinet, violin, cello and piano 00:10:00
  • Cellotape, 1965
    cello, tape recorder and piano 00:09:00
  • Cinq impromptus op. 16, 1959
    chamber orchestra 00:15:00
  • Concerto, 1980
    bass clarinet, double bass clarinet and orchestra 00:26:00
  • Concerto, 1972
    2 orchestras and percussion 00:14:00
  • Concerto de la luz y las tinieblas, 1990
    solo organ and instrumental ensemble 00:22:00
  • Concerto nr.2, 1958
    flute and string orchestra 00:16:00
  • Contrapuntos, 1967
    1 through 12 tape recorders 00:10:00
  • Cuadro Cervantino, 2003
    vocal quintet and ensemble 00:15:00
  • Cuatro poemas de F Garcia Lorca, 1998
    Mezzo-Soprano and orchestra 00:25:00
  • De tuin der lusten, 1977
    bass clarinet and tape 00:30:00
  • Diálogos, 1963
    string orch., wind quintet, 2 string quintets, percussion and tape 00:16:00
  • Diferencias, 1974
    2 oboes, cor anglais, 2 bassoons, 2 trumpets, 2 trombones, 1 bass trombone 00:10:00
  • Difonium, 1974
    bass clarinet and tape recorder 00:18:00
  • Dos Piezas, 1993
    trombone in C, bugle an trombone in D (1 player) 00:14:00
  • Dos Proyecciones Musicales, 1990
    flute in C, alto clarinet and bass clarinet (1 performer) and piano 00:08:00
  • Drie capriccio's op. 17, 1959
    organ 00:08:00
  • Drie essais op. 14, 1959
    flute, oboe, clarinet, horn and bassoon 00:06:00
  • Drie inventies, 1984
    alto sax. in E flat, bass clar. in B flat, marimbaphone and vibraph. (2 performe 00:16:00
  • Drie preludia en een postludium bij vier gedichten van Gust Gils, 1973
    trombone, double bass and Narrator 00:05:00
  • Duelos, 1984
    xylomarimba and percussion 00:25:00
  • El laberinto de Euterpe, 2001
    recorder quartet and percussion 00:15:00
  • Encuentros solitarios, 1996
    violin 00:12:00
  • Endomorfie I, 1964
    violin, piano and tape recorder 00:06:45
  • Endomorfie II, 1963
    flute, clarinet in B flat, bassoon, trp. in B flat, horn in F, trb. and tuba 00:08:00
  • Ensimismamientos, 1969
    bassoon, violin, cello, piano, contact microphones and tape recorder 00:09:00
  • Ensimismamientos espaciales, 2004
    electronic music 00:16:42
  • Enteuxis, 1968
    14 soloists 00:16:20
  • Espacios y Tiempos, 2003
    violin, harp and electronic part 00:12:00
  • Europa Sonate, 1989
    flute, oboe, piano and double bass 00:20:00
  • Fantasia, 1975
    recorder and harpsichord 00:06:00
  • Fantasia en humoreske, 1975
    2 oboes and cor anglais 00:10:00
  • Festina Lente, 2001
    Mezzo-Soprano, Baritone and instruments 00:45:00
  • Fuga enigmatica, 1999
    flute, clarinet, guitar, piano, cello, vibraphone 00:08:00
  • Fusion, 1976
    bass clarinet, piano and tape 00:14:00
  • Gilgamesj, 1999
    violin, viola, cello, double bass, flute, oboe, trumpet, trombone, piano 00:10:00
  • Gmebophonies, 1979
    tape recorder, flute, alto sax., viola, cello, organ and percussion 00:20:05
  • , 1971
    10 instruments, 3 tape recorders, 1 stereo tape rec., slide projector and mime 01:15:00
  • Hommage à Schoenberg, 1977
    flute and percussion 00:10:00
  • Interludium op. 18, 1961
    organ 00:04:00
  • Introductie & Fantasia, 1985
    organ 00:06:00
  • Isjtar, 1999
    bass/tenor/alto recorder and piano 00:11:00
  • Klankstructuren, 1962
    organ 00:07:00
  • Kristal 1 op. 21/1, 1961
    piano 00:00:00
  • Kristal 2 op. 21/2, 1961
    piano 00:00:00
  • Ladrido, 1981
    Soprano, clarinet, horn and percussion 00:06:00
  • Lecina, 1966
    Alto, flute, violin and cello 00:08:05
  • Llanto por Salvador Allende, 1973
    trombone solo 00:08:00
  • Mouvement, 1967
    2 violins, viola and cello 00:06:00
  • Movimientos y acciones, 1967
    flute, violin, viola, percussion, vibr., chromatic harp, clar., violin and cello 00:15:00
  • Musica con cantus firmus triste, 1978
    flute (do+sol), violin, viola and cello 00:13:00
  • Musica dodecafonica, 1957
    piano 00:03:00
  • Ofrenda, 1980
    trumpet in C and piano 00:11:00
  • Paal en Perk, 1979
    Mezzo-Soprano and instrumental ensemble 00:09:00
  • Paisajes interiores, 1983
    flute in C 00:16:00
  • Pampa, 1979
    Mezzo-Soprano, alto flute, clarinet, violin, viola, cello, piano, 2 percussion 00:08:00
  • Para cinco, 1983
    flute, oboe, horn (in F), vibraphone and percussion 00:15:00
  • Pentagoon, 1963
    piano 00:05:00
  • Prelude op de naam Raf Goormans, 1997
    organ 00:00:00
  • Prelude op de naam Raf Goormans, 1997
    organ 00:00:00
  • Preludium en Postludium, 1975
    flute 00:03:00
  • Quatre pièces, 1976
    orchestra 00:15:00
  • Quebraduras, 1969
    violin, viola, cello and piano 00:14:00
  • Rituel, 1979
    tcheng, percussion and tape 00:22:55
  • Rituele suite, 1959
    2 trumpets, horn, trombone and tuba 00:07:00
  • Seis Sonetos, 1992
    Choir a cappella 00:15:00
  • Sinfonia en gris mayor, 1966
    2 orchestras, percussion and tape recorder 00:13:15
  • Sonata, 1979
    double bass and tape recorder 00:18:26
  • Sonata op. 22, 1961
    guitar 00:08:00
  • Sonata 2, 1959
    violin and piano 00:06:00
  • Sonatina op. 02, 1956
    organ 00:10:00
  • Strijkkwartet nr.2, 1992
    2 violins, viola and cello 00:17:00
  • Suma, 1971
    electronic music 00:05:30
  • Superposiciones, 1970
    violin, cello, bassoon and piano 00:20:00
  • Tres cantos, 1991
    lyrical Soprano, flute, violin, viola and cello 00:13:00
  • Tres momentos musicales, 1977
    violin and electronic music 00:14:55
  • Tres Paisajes Sonoros, 1973
    flute, oboe, Fr. horn, trb., violin, double bass, harpsichord 00:10:25
  • Trio, 1980
    flute or alto flute (G), bass clarinet (B) or double bass (B) and piano 00:18:00
  • Triptico Azul, 2002
    organ and 3 trumpets (1 performer) 00:11:30
  • Triptiek, 1975
    violin and harpsichord 00:09:00
  • Triptiek op. 13, 1959
    organ 00:08:00
  • Twee capriccio's op. 11, 1959
    piano 00:04:00
  • Twee dodecafonische gestalten, 1959
    piano 00:06:00
  • Twee liederen, 1989
    Soprano and instrumental ensemble 00:07:00
  • Twee tekeningen op. 20, 1961
    piano 00:04:00
  • Tweehandige inventie, 1991
    piano 00:08:50
  • Variaties op een thema van Herman Sabbe, 1979
    organ 00:06:00
  • Vensters, 1967
    2 Narrators, piano, cello, 4 percussion 00:20:00
  • Vier stukken, 1969
    bass clarinet and piano 00:07:00
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